pula n : the basic unit of money in Botswana
EtymologyOriginally an opening in the ice into which a man has fallen or may fall. Probably onomatopoetic imitating the associated sound of water.
- the two of them
Etymologypulla, fem. of pullus (=offspring, child, cub, chick, etc.)
Pula (lang-sl Pulj; Istriot Pula; lang-it Pola) is the largest city in Istria county, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006).
Like the rest of the region, it is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature. The city has a long tradition of winemaking, fishing, shipbuilding, and tourism. Pula has also been Istria's administrative center since ancient Roman times.
PopulationPula is the largest city in Istria county, with a metropolitan area of 90,000 people. The city itself has 62,080 residents (2005), while the metropolitan area includes Barban (2,802 residents), Fažana (3,050 residents), Ližnjan (2,945 residents), Marčana (3,903 residents), Medulin (6,004 residents), Svetvinčenat (2,218 residents) and Vodnjan (5,651 residents).
Its population density is 1,093.27 residents/km², ranking Pula fifth in Croatia.
Its birth rate is 1.795 per cent and its mortality rate is 1.014 per cent (in 2001 466 people were born and 594 deceased), with a natural population decrease of -0.219 per cent and vital index of 78.45.
The majority of its citizens are Croats representing 71.65% of the population (2001 census). Ethnic minorities and their composition is as follows: 3,415 Serbs (5.83 per cent), 2,824 Italians (4.82 per cent), 980 Bosnians (1.67 per cent), 731 Slovenians (1.25 per cent) and the rest belong to other minor ethnic communities.
GeographyThe city lies on and beneath seven hills (Monte Zaro, Monte Serpente, Monte Ghiro, Monte Magno, Monte Paradiso, Monte Rizzi and Monte Vidal), on the inner part of a wide gulf and a naturally well-protected port (depth up to 38 m) open to the northwest with two entrances: from the sea and through Fažana channel. Today, Pula's geographical area amounts to 5,165 ha, 4,150 ha on land and 1,015 ha at sea, bounded from the north by islands Sv. Jerolim and Kozada, city areas Štinjan, Veli Vrh and Šijanic forest; from the east area Monteserpo, Valmade, Busoler and Valdebek; from the south with the old gas works, commercial port Veruda and island Veruda; and from the west Verudela, Lungomare and Musil.
Like the rest of the region it is known for its mild climate, tame sea, and unspoiled nature with an average insolation of 2,316 hours per year or 6.3 hours a day, with an average air temperature of 13.2°C (6.1°C in February to 26.4°C in July and August) and sea oscillation from 7°C to 26°C.
The city is best known for its many surviving ancient Roman buildings, the most famous of which is its first century amphitheatre, sixth largest in the world and locally known as the Arena. This is one of the best preserved amphitheatres from antiquity and is still in use today during summer film festivals. During the World War II Italian fascist administration, there were attempts to disassemble the arena and move it to mainland Italy, which were quickly abandoned due to the costs involved.
Two other notable and well-preserved ancient Roman structures are the 1st century AD triumphal arch, the Arch of the Sergii and the co-eval temple of Rome and Augustus, built in the 1st century AD built on the forum during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus.
The Twin Gates (Porta Gemina) is one of the few remaining gates after the city walls were pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century. It dates from the mid-2nd century, replacing an earlier gate. It consists of two arches, columns, a plain architrave and a decorated frieze. Close by are a few remains of the old city wall.
The Gate of Hercules dates from the first century. At the top of the single arch one can see the bearded head of Hercules, carved in high-relief, and his club on the adjoining voussoir. A damaged inscription, close to the club, contains the names of Lucius Calpurnius Piso and Gaius Cassius Longinus who were entrusted by the Roman senate to found a colony at the site of Pula. Thus it can be deducted that Pula was founded between 47 and 44 BC.
The Augustan Forum was constructed in the first century BC, close to the sea. In Roman times it was surrounded by temples of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. This Roman commercial and administrative centre of the city remained the main square of classical and medieval Pula. It still is the main administrative and legislative centre of the city. The temple of Roma and Augustus is still preserved today. A part of the back wall of the temple of Juno was integrated into the Communal Palace in the 13th century.
Two Roman theatres have withstood the ravages of time : the smaller one (diam. circa 50 m; 2nd c. AD) near the centre, the larger one (diam. circa 100 m; 1st c. AD) on the southern edge of the city.
The city's old quarter of narrow streets, lined with Medieval and Renaissance buildings, are still surfaced with ancient Roman paving stones.
The Byzantine chapel of St. Mary Formosa was built in the 6th century (before 546) in the form of a Greek cross, resembling the churches in Ravenna. It was built by deacon Maximian, who became later Archbishop of Ravenna. It was, together with another chapel, part of a Benedictine abbey that was demolished in the 16th century. The floors and the walls are decorated with 6th-century mosaics. The decoration bears some resemblance to the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna. The wall over the door contains a Byzantine carved stone panel. The 15th-century wall paintings may be restorations of Early Christian paintings. When the Venetians raided Pula in 1605, they removed many treasures from this chapel to Venice, including the four columns of oriental alabaster that stand behind the high altar of St Mark's Basilica.
The church of St. Francis dates from the end of the 13th century. It was built in 1314 in late Romanesque style with Gothic additions such as the rose window. The church consists of a single nave with three apses. An unusual feature of this church is the double pulpit, with one part projecting into the street. A 15th-century wooden polyptych from an Emilian artist adorns the altar. The west portal is decorated with shell motifs and a rose window. The adjoining monastery dates from the 14th century. The cloisters display some antique Roman artifacts.
The Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was built in the 6 th century, when Pula became the seat of a bishopry, over the remains over the original site where the Christians used to gather and pray in Roman times. It was enlarged in the 10th century. After its destruction by Genoese and venetian raids, it was almost completely rebuilt in the 15th century. It got its present form when a late Renaissance façade was added in the early 16th century. The church still retains several Romanesque and Byzantine characters, such as some parts of the walls (dating from the 4th century), a few of the original column capitals and the upper windows of the nave. In the altar area and in the room to the south one can still see fragments of 5th to 6th-century floor mosaics with memorial inscriptions from worshippers who paid for the mosaics. The windows of the aisles underwent reconstruction in Gothic style after a fire in 1242. The belfry in front the church was built between 1671 and 1707 with stones form the amphitheatre. There also used to stand a baptistery from the 5th century in front of the church, but it was demolished in 1885.
The Orthodox Church of St. Nicholas with its Ravenna-style polygonal apse, originally dates from the 6th century, but was partially rebuilt in the 10th century. In 1583 it was assigned to the Orthodox community of Pula, mainly immigrants from Cyprus and Nauplion. The church owns several icons from the 15th and the 16th century and an iconostasis from the Greek artists Tomios Batos from the 18th century.
The star-shaped castle with four bastions is situated on top of the central hill of the old city. It was built, over the remains of the Roman capitolium, by the Venetians in the 14th century, following the plans of the French military architect Antoine de Ville. Since 1961 it now houses the Historical Museum of Istria. Close by, on the northeastern slopes, one can see the remains of a 2nd-century theatre. The Archaeological Museum of Istria is situated in the park on a lower level than the Roman theatre and close to the Twin Gates. Its collection was started by Marshall Marmont in August 1802 when he collected the stone monuments from the temple of Roma and Augustus. The present-day museum was opened in 1949. It displays treasures from Pula and surroundings from prehistory until the Middle Ages.
CultureAs a result of its rich political history, Pula is a city with a cultural mixture of people and languages from the Mediterranean and Central Europe, ancient and contemporary. Pula's architecture reflects these layers of history. Residents are commonly fluent in foreign languages, especially Italian, often also German and English. From October 30, 1904 to March 1905 Irish writer James Joyce taught English at the Berlitz School; his students were mainly Austro-Hungarian naval officers who were stationed at the Naval Shipyard. While he was in Pula he organized the local printing of his broadsheet The Holy Office, which satirized both William Butler Yeats and George Russell http://www.lib.utulsa.edu/speccoll/JJoyce/dear_dirty_dublin.htm.
- Alida Valli, Italian actress, was born in Pula.
- Physician Robert Koch worked on the nearby Brijuni islands.
- Herman Potočnik (pseudonym Hermann Noordung) a rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics (astronautics) was also born in Pula.
- Georg Ritter von Trapp - Austrian naval hero and head of the famous singing family immortalized in the musical The Sound of Music lived in Pula.
- Hede von Trapp, Austrian painter
- Among the "polesi" (Italian natives of the city) is Sergio Endrigo, one of the most famous Italian singer-songwriters.
- Wolf von Aichelburg, Rumanian-German writer
- Franz Karl Ginzkey, Austrian officer, poet and writer
- Karl Albrecht von Habsburg-Lothringen, Austrian and Polish officer and landowner
- Johann Palisa, discoverer of ca.30 asteroids
- Antonio Smareglia (1854-1929), Italian composer
- Stiven Rivic, Croatian footballer of the German club Energie Cottbus
- Alojz Gradnik, Slovenian poet, worked in Pula as a judge
EconomyMajor industries include shipbuilding, processing industry, tourism, traffic, food industies, construction industries and other non-metal industries.
Major companies located in Pula:
- Uljanik (shipbuilding) http://www.uljanik.hr
- Tehnomont (shipbuilding) http://www.tehnomont.hr
- Istra cement d.o.o. (cement production)
- Brionka d.d. (food industry) http://www.brionka.hr/
- DURAN d.d. (glass production) http://www.duran-group.com/english/products/boral/index.html
- Bina Istra d.d. (construction industry) http://www.bina-istra.hr/
- Istragradnja d.d. (construction industry) http://www.istragradnja.hr/
- Cesta d.o.o. (construction industry)
- Arenaturist d.d. (tourism)http://www.arenaturist.hr/
- Uniline d.o.o (tourism) http://www.uniline.hr
Volleyball-OK OTP Banka Pula (first Croatian league)
Basketball-KK Stoja and KK Istra
Judo-JK Istarski borac and JK PulaFit
TourismThe natural beauty of Pula's surrounding countryside and turquoise water of the Adriatic have made the city an internationally popular summer vacation destination. The pearl nearby is Brijuni national park visited by numerous world leaders since it was the summer residence of Josip Broz Tito. Roman villas and temples still lie buried among farm fields and along the shoreline of the dozens of surrounding fishing and farming villages. The coastal waters offer beaches, fishing, wreck dives to ancient Roman galleys and World War I warships, cliff diving, and sailing to unspoiled coves and islands large and small.
Pula is the end point of the EuroVelo 9 cycle route that runs from Gdansk on the Baltic Sea through Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia.
It is possible to track dinosaur footprints on the nearby sea shores; certain more important finds have been made at an undisclosed location near Bale.
TransportPula had an electric tramway system in the early 20th century. It was built in 1904 as a part of Pula's economic crescendo during the Austro-Hungarian rule. After WWI, during the Fascist rule, the need for tram transportation declined and it was finally dismantled in 1934.
Pula Airport is located south-east of Pula, and serves both domestic and international destinations. Similarly to nearby Rijeka Airport, it is not a major international destination. However, this is likely to change as low-cost airline, Ryanair has started scheduled flights to Pula since November 2006. Nearby international airports include Trieste in Italy, Zagreb, Croatia's capital and Ljubljana, Slovenia's capital. There are direct flights into Pula airport from London and Dublin during whole year and several other large airports in Western Europe during summer.
A train service operates north from Pula through to Slovenia, however the line remains disconnected from the rest of the Croatian Railways network. Plans to tunnel the 'missing link' between this line and from Rijeka have existed for many years, and despite work commencing on this project previously, has never seen completion.
Buses serve Pula from a wide range of local, domestic and international locations and operate from the large bus terminal on the edge of the city centre. Public bus operation is ran by Pulapromet.
Passenger ferries also operate from the port area to nearby islands, and also to Venice in Italy.
Nearby towns and villages
Twin towns and partner towns
- flagicon Austria Graz (since 1972, partnership established in 1961)
- flagicon Germany Trier (since 1971)
- flagicon Italy Imola (since 1972)
- flagicon Italy Verona (since 1982)
- flagicon Slovenia Kranj
- flagicon Croatia Čabar (since 1974)
- flagicon Croatia Varaždin (since 1979)
- flagicon Japan Hekinan (since 2007)
Other forms of partnership:
Strong friendly relationships and continuous contacts are maintained with these towns:
- Turner, J. - Grove Dictionary of Art - Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (January 2, 1996); ISBN 0-19-517068-7
pula in Bosnian: Pula
pula in Bulgarian: Пула (град в Хърватия)
pula in Catalan: Pula
pula in Czech: Pula
pula in Danish: Pula
pula in German: Pula
pula in Estonian: Pula
pula in Modern Greek (1453-): Πούλα (Κροατία)
pula in Spanish: Pula (Istria)
pula in French: Pula
pula in Croatian: Pula
pula in Italian: Pola
pula in Latin: Pietas Iulia
pula in Luxembourgish: Pula
pula in Lithuanian: Pula
pula in Hungarian: Póla
pula in Dutch: Pula (Kroatië)
pula in Japanese: プーラ (クロアチア)
pula in Norwegian: Pula
pula in Norwegian Nynorsk: Pula
pula in Polish: Pula
pula in Portuguese: Pula (Croácia)
pula in Romanian: Pola, Croaţia
pula in Russian: Пула
pula in Albanian: Pula (Kroaci)
pula in Slovenian: Pulj
pula in Serbian: Пула
pula in Serbo-Croatian: Pula
pula in Finnish: Pula
pula in Swedish: Pula, Kroatien
pula in Turkish: Pula
pula in Ukrainian: Пула
pula in Venetian: Poła
pula in Chinese: 普拉